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B Zelman et al. Costs of Eliminating Malaria and the Impact of the Global Fund in 34 Countries. PLoS One

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 31 December 2015 - 12:00am
International financing for malaria increased more than 18-fold between 2000 and 2011; the largest source came from The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). . . .
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AJ Arik et al. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. FASEB J

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 31 December 2015 - 12:00am
Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. . . .
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JJ Campo et al. RTS,S vaccination is associated with serologic evidence of decreased exposure to Plasmodium falciparum liver and blood stage parasites. Mol Cell Proteomics

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 30 December 2015 - 12:00am
The leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, targets the sporozoite and liver stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle, yet it provides partial protection against disease associated with subsequent blood-stage of infection. . . .
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C Waterman et al. Miniaturized Cultivation of Microbiota for Antimalarial Drug Discovery. Med Res Rev

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 29 December 2015 - 12:00am
The ongoing search for effective antiplasmodial agents remains essential in the fight against malaria worldwide. . . .
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CV Hobbs et al. Neither the HIV Protease Inhibitor Lopinavir-Ritonavir nor the Antimicrobial Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Malaria Relapse in Plasmodium cynomolgi-Infected Non-Human Primates. PLoS One

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 27 December 2015 - 12:00am
Plasmodium vivax malaria causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and only one drug is in clinical use that can kill the hypnozoites that cause P. . . .
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K Schuldt et al. Endothelial protein C receptor gene variants not associated with severe malaria in ghanaian children. PLoS One

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 27 December 2015 - 12:00am
Two recent reports have identified the Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR) as a key molecule implicated in severe malaria pathology. . . .
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Malaria impact of large dams in sub-Saharan Africa: maps, estimates and predictions

Malaria Journal - 4 September 2015 - 12:00am
Background: While there is growing recognition of the malaria impacts of large dams in sub-Saharan Africa, the cumulative malaria impact of reservoirs associated with current and future dam developments has not been quantified. The objective of this study was to estimate the current and predict the future impact of large dams on malaria in different eco-epidemiological settings across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The locations of 1268 existing and 78 planned large dams in sub-Saharan Africa were mapped against the malaria stability index (stable, unstable and no malaria). The Plasmodium falciparum infection rate (PfIR) was determined for populations at different distances (<1, 1–2, 2–5, 5–9 km) from the associated reservoirs using the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) and WorldPop databases. Results derived from MAP were verified by comparison with the results of detailed epidemiological studies conducted at 11 dams. Results: Of the 1268 existing dams, 723 are located in malarious areas. Currently, about 15 million people live in close proximity (<5 km) to the reservoirs associated with these dams. A total of 1.1 million malaria cases annually are associated with them: 919,000 cases due to the presence of 416 dams in areas of unstable transmission and 204,000 cases due to the presence of 307 dams in areas of stable transmission. Of the 78 planned dams, 60 will be located in malarious areas and these will create an additional 56,000 cases annually. The variation in annual PfIR in communities as a function of distance from reservoirs was statistically significant in areas of unstable transmission but not in areas of stable transmission. Conclusion: In sub-Saharan Africa, dams contribute significantly to malaria risk particularly in areas of unstable transmission. Additional malaria control measures are thus required to reduce the impact of dams on malaria.
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Implementation and application of a multiplex assay to detect malaria-specific antibodies: a promising tool for assessing malaria transmission in Southeast Asian pre-elimination areas

Malaria Journal - 4 September 2015 - 12:00am
Background: Epidemiological surveillance is a key activity in malaria control and elimination in low-transmission and pre-elimination settings. Hence, sensitive tools for estimating malaria force of infection are crucial. Serological markers might provide additional information in estimating force of infection in low-endemic areas along with classical parasite detection methods. Serological markers can be used to estimate recent, past or present malaria exposure, depending on the used markers and their half-life. Methods: An assay based on 14 Plasmodium-specific peptides, one peptide specific for Anopheles gambiae saliva protein and five Plasmodium-specific recombinant proteins was developed for the MAGPIX system, assessed for its performance, and applied on blood spots from 2000 individuals collected in the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. Results: A significant correlation for the use of 1000 and 2000 beads/antigen/well as well as for the monoplex versus multiplex assay was observed for all antigens (p < 0.05). For the majority of antigens, antigen-coupled beads were stable for at least 2 months. The assay was very reproducible with limited intercoupling, interplate and intraplate variability (mean RSD <15 %). Estimating seroconversion and seroreversion per antigen using reversible catalytic models and models allowing two seroconversion rates showed higher seroconversion rates in adults. Conclusion: The multiplex bead-based immunoassay was successfully implemented and analysis of field blood samples shows that changes detected in force of malaria infection vary according to the serological markers used. Multivariate analysis of the antibody responses and insights into the half-life of antibodies are crucial for improving the interpretation of these results and for identifying the most useful serological markers of past and recent malaria infection.
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Monitoring changes in malaria epidemiology and effectiveness of interventions in Ethiopia and Uganda: Beyond Garki Project baseline survey

Malaria Journal - 4 September 2015 - 12:00am
Background: Scale-up of malaria interventions seems to have contributed to a decline in the disease but other factors may also have had some role. Understanding changes in transmission and determinant factors will help to adapt control strategies accordingly. Methods: Four sites in Ethiopia and Uganda were set up to monitor epidemiological changes and effectiveness of interventions over time. Here, results of a survey during the peak transmission season of 2012 are reported, which will be used as baseline for subsequent surveys and may support adaptation of control strategies. Data on malariometric and entomological variables, socio-economic status (SES) and control coverage were collected. Results: Malaria prevalence varied from 1.4 % in Guba (Ethiopia) to 9.9 % in Butemba (Uganda). The most dominant species was Plasmodium vivax in Ethiopia and Plasmodium falciparum in Uganda. The majority of human-vector contact occurred indoors in Uganda, ranging from 83 % (Anopheles funestus sensu lato) to 93 % (Anopheles gambiae s.l.), which is an important factor for the effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). High kdr-L1014S (resistance genotype) frequency was observed in A. gambiae sensu stricto in Uganda. Too few mosquitoes were collected in Ethiopia, so it was not possible to assess vector habits and insecticide resistance levels. ITN ownership did not vary by SES and 56–98 % and 68–78 % of households owned at least one ITN in Ethiopia and Uganda, respectively. In Uganda, 7 % of nets were purchased by households, but the nets were untreated. In three of the four sites, 69–76 % of people with access to ITNs used them. IRS coverage ranged from 84 to 96 % in the three sprayed sites. Half of febrile children in Uganda and three-quarters in Ethiopia for whom treatment was sought received diagnostic tests. High levels of child undernutrition were detected in both countries carrying important implications on child development. In Uganda, 7–8 % of pregnant women took the recommended minimum three doses of intermittent preventive treatment. Conclusion: Malaria epidemiology seems to be changing compared to earlier published data, and it is essential to have more data to understand how much of the changes are attributable to interventions and other factors. Regular monitoring will help to better interpret changes, identify determinants, modify strategies and improve targeting to address transmission heterogeneity.
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Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of <it>pvmdr1</it> and microsatellite genotype in <it>Plasmodium vivax</it> isolates from Republic of Korea military personnel

Malaria Journal - 4 September 2015 - 12:00am
Background: Chloroquine has been administered to the soldiers of the Republic of Korea as prophylaxis against vivax malaria. Recent increase in the number of chloroquine-resistant parasites has raised concern over the chemoprophylaxis and treatment of vivax malaria. Methods: To monitor the development of chloroquine-resistant parasites in the Republic of Korea, analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of pvmdr1 and microsatellite markers were performed using samples collected from 55 South Korean soldiers infected with Plasmodium vivax. Results: Four SNPs, F1076L, T529, E1233, and S1358, were identified. Among these, S1358 was detected for the first time in Korea. The microsatellite-based study revealed higher genetic diversity in samples collected in 2012 than in 2011. Conclusions: Taken together, the results indicate that P. vivax with a newly identified SNP of pvmdr1 has been introduced into the Korean P. vivax population. Therefore, continuous monitoring for chloroquine-resistant parasites is required for controlling vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.
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Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds : infection and population impacts across species and elevations

CiteULike malaria tags - 3 September 2015 - 10:30pm
Ecosphere, Vol. 6, No. 6. (2015), pp. 1-21
Michael Samuel, Bethany Woodworth, Carter Atkinson, Patrick Hart, Dennis LaPointe
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Genetic determinants of anti-malarial acquired immunity in a large multi-centre study

CiteULike malaria tags - 3 September 2015 - 9:53am
Malaria Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1. (28 August 2015), 333, doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0833-x

Many studies report associations between human genetic factors and immunity to malaria but few have been reliably replicated. These studies are usually country-specific, use small sample sizes and are not directly comparable due to differences in methodologies. This study brings together samples and data collected from multiple sites across Africa and Asia to use standardized methods to look for consistent genetic effects on anti-malarial antibody levels.
Jennifer Shelton, Patrick Corran, Paul Risley, Nilupa Silva, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Rachel Craik, Victoria Cornelius, Meike Hensmann, Sile Molloy, Nuno Sepulveda, Taane Clark, Gavin Band, Geraldine Clarke, Christopher Spencer, Angeliki Kerasidou, Susana Campino, Sarah Auburn, Adama Tall, Alioune Ly, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Abdoulaye Djimdé, Boubacar Maiga, Ousmane Touré, Ogobara Doumbo, Amagana Dolo, Marita Troye-Blomberg, Valentina Mangano, Frederica Verra, David Modiano, Edith Bougouma, Sodiomon Sirima, Muntaser Ibrahim, Ayman Hussain, Nahid Eid, Abier Elzein, Hiba Mohammed, Ahmed Elhassan, Ibrahim Elhassan, Thomas Williams, Carolyne Ndila, Alexander Macharia, Kevin Marsh, Alphaxard Manjurano, Hugh Reyburn, Martha Lemnge, Deus Ishengoma, Richard Carter, Nadira Karunaweera, Deepika Fernando, Rajika Dewasurendra, Christopher Drakeley, Eleanor Riley, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Kirk Rockett, $Author
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