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EY Lukianova-Hleb et al. Hemozoin-generated vapor nanobubbles for transdermal reagent- and needle-free detection of malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 31 December 2014 - 12:00am
Successful diagnosis, screening, and elimination of malaria critically depend on rapid and sensitive detection of this dangerous infection, preferably transdermally and without sophisticated reagents or blood drawing. . . .
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KJ Vogel et al. Phylogenetic investigation of Peptide hormone and growth factor receptors in five dipteran genomes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 31 December 2014 - 12:00am
Peptide hormones and growth factors bind to membrane receptors and regulate a myriad of processes in insects and other metazoans. . . .
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J Rydzak et al. Human erythrocyte glycophorin C as the receptor for EBA-140 Plasmodium falciparum merozoite ligand. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 31 December 2014 - 12:00am
Erythrocyte invasion by the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites is a multistep process involving specific interactions between parasites and red blood cells. . . .
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R Sundararajan et al. Barriers to Malaria Control among Marginalized Tribal Communities: A Qualitative Study. PLoS One

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 30 December 2014 - 12:00am
Malaria infection accounts for over one million deaths worldwide annually. . . .
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DV Canyon et al. Insights in public health: systems thinking: basic constructs, application challenges, misuse in health, and how public health leaders can pave the way forward. Hawaii J Med Public Health

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 30 December 2014 - 12:00am
The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. . . .
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and susceptibility to mild malaria in Dogon and Fulani, Mali

CiteULike malaria tags - 21 August 2014 - 10:03am
Malaria Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1. (11 July 2014), 270, doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-270

BACKGROUND:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with protection from severe malaria, and potentially uncomplicated malaria phenotypes. It has been documented that G6PD deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa is due to the 202A/376G G6PD A-allele, and association studies have used genotyping as a convenient technique for epidemiological studies. However, recent studies have shown discrepancies in G6PD202/376 associations with severe malaria. There is evidence to suggest that other G6PD deficiency alleles may be common in some regions of West Africa, and that allelic heterogeneity could explain these discrepancies.METHODS:A cross-sectional epidemiological study of malaria susceptibility was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in the Sahel meso-endemic malaria zone of Mali. The study included Dogon (n=375) and Fulani (n=337) sympatric ethnic groups, where the latter group is characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fifty-three G6PD polymorphisms, including 202/376, were genotyped across the 712 samples. Evidence of association of these G6PD polymorphisms and mild malaria was assessed in both ethnic groups using genotypic and haplotypic statistical tests.RESULTS:It was confirmed that the Fulani are less susceptible to malaria, and the 202A mutation is rare in this group (<1% versus Dogon 7.9%). The Betica-Selma 968C/376G (~11% enzymatic activity) was more common in Fulani (6.1% vs Dogon 0.0%). There are differences in haplotype frequencies between Dogon and Fulani, and association analysis did not reveal strong evidence of protective G6PD genetic effects against uncomplicated malaria in both ethnic groups and gender. However, there was some evidence of increased risk of mild malaria in Dogon with the 202A mutation, attaining borderline statistical significance in females. The rs915942 polymorphism was found to be associated with asymptomatic malaria in Dogon females, and the rs61042368 polymorphism was associated with clinical malaria in Fulani males.CONCLUSIONS:The results highlight the need to consider markers in addition to G6PD202 in studies of deficiency. Further, large genetic epidemiological studies of multi-ethnic groups in West Africa across a spectrum of malaria severity phenotypes are required to establish who receives protection from G6PD deficiency.
Bakary Maiga, Amagana Dolo, Susana Campino, Nuno Sepulveda, Patrick Corran, Kirk Rockett, Marita Blomberg, Ogobara Doumbo, Taane Clark
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Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers

CiteULike malaria tags - 21 August 2014 - 9:58am
Biophysical Journal, Vol. 107, No. 4. (August 2014), pp. 846-853, doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2014.07.010
Alex Crick, Michel Theron, Teresa Tiffert, Virgilio Lew, Pietro Cicuta, Julian Rayner
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A malaria vaccine candidate based on an epitope of the Plasmodium falciparum RH5 protein

Malaria Journal - 18 August 2014 - 12:00am
Background: The Plasmodium falciparum protein RH5 is an adhesin molecule essential for parasite invasion of erythrocytes. Recent studies show that anti-PfRH5 sera have potent invasion-inhibiting activities, supporting the idea that the PfRH5 antigen could form the basis of a vaccine. Therefore, epitopes recognized by neutralizing anti-PfRH5 antibodies could themselves be effective vaccine immunogens if presented in a sufficiently immunogenic fashion. However, the exact regions within PfRH5 that are targets of this invasion-inhibitory activity have yet to be identified. Methods: A battery of anti-RH5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced and screened for their potency by inhibition of invasion assays in vitro. Using an anti-RH5 mAb that completely inhibited invasion as the selecting mAb, affinity-selection using random sequence peptide libraries displayed on virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) was performed. VLPs were sequenced to identify the specific peptide epitopes they encoded and used to raise specific antisera that was in turn tested for inhibition of invasion. Results: Three anti-RH5 monoclonals (0.1 mg/mL) were able to inhibit invasion in vitro by >95%. Affinity-selection with one of these mAbs yielded a VLP which yielded a peptide whose sequence is identical to a portion of PfRH5 itself. The VLP displaying the peptide binds strongly to the antibody, and in immunized animals elicits an anti-PfRH5 antibody response. The resulting antisera against the specific VLP inhibit parasite invasion of erythrocytes more than 90% in vitro. Conclusions: Here, data is presented from an anti-PfRH5 mAb that completely inhibits erythrocyte invasion by parasites in vitro, one of the few anti-malarial monoclonal antibodies reported to date that completely inhibits invasion with such potency, adding to other studies that highlight the potential of PfRH5 as a vaccine antigen. The specific neutralization sensitive epitope within RH5 has been identified, and antibodies against this epitope also elicit high anti-invasion activity, suggesting this epitope could form the basis of an effective vaccine against malaria.
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KE Wright et al. Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies. Nature

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 18 August 2014 - 12:00am
Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. . . .
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S Amarasinghe et al. Conserved regions of Plasmodium vivax potential vaccine candidate antigens in Sri Lanka: Conscious in silico analysis of prospective conformational epitope regions. Asian Pac J Trop Med

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 18 August 2014 - 12:00am
To do mapping and modeling of conformational B cell epitope regions of highly conserved and protective regions of three merozoitecandidate vaccine proteins of Plasmodium vivax (P. . . .
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Cost analysis of the development and implementation of a spatial decision support system for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

Malaria Journal - 18 August 2014 - 12:00am
Background: The goal of malaria elimination faces numerous challenges. New tools are required to support the scale up of interventions and improve national malaria programme capacity to conduct detailed surveillance. This study investigates the cost factors influencing the development and implementation of a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for malaria elimination in the two elimination provinces of Isabel and Temotu, Solomon Islands.MethodFinancial and economic costs to develop and implement a SDSS were estimated using the Solomon Islands programme's financial records. Using an ingredients approach, verified by stakeholders and operational reports, total costs for each province were quantified. A budget impact sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of variations in standard budgetary components on the costs and to identify potential cost savings. Results: A total investment of US$ 96,046 (2012 constant dollars) was required to develop and implement the SDSS in two provinces (Temotu Province US$ 49,806 and Isabel Province US$ 46,240). The single largest expense category was for computerized equipment totalling approximately US$ 30,085. Geographical reconnaissance was the most expensive phase of development and implementation, accounting for approximately 62% of total costs. Sensitivity analysis identified different cost factors between the provinces. Reduced equipment costs would deliver a budget saving of approximately 10% in Isabel Province. Combined travel costs represented the greatest influence on the total budget in the more remote Temotu Province. Conclusion: This study provides the first cost analysis of an operational surveillance tool used specifically for malaria elimination in the South-West Pacific. It is demonstrated that the costs of such a decision support system are driven by specialized equipment and travel expenses. Such factors should be closely scrutinized in future programme budgets to ensure maximum efficiencies are gained and available resources are allocated effectively.
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A cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of using 15% DEET topical repellent with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) compared to a placebo lotion on malaria transmission

Malaria Journal - 16 August 2014 - 12:00am
Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have limited effect on malaria transmitted outside of sleeping hours. Topical repellents have demonstrated reduction in the incidence of malaria transmitted in the early evening. This study assessed whether 15% DEET topical repellent used in combination with LLINs can prevent greater malaria transmission than placebo and LLINs, in rural Tanzania. Methods: A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between July 2009 and August 2010 in a rural Tanzanian village. Sample size calculation determined that 10 clusters of 47 households with five people/household were needed to observe a 24% treatment effect at the two-tailed 5% significance level, with 90% power, assuming a baseline malaria incidence of one case/person/year. Ten clusters each were randomly assigned to repellent and control groups by lottery. A total of 4,426 individuals older than six months were enrolled. All households in the village were provided with an LLIN per sleeping space. Repellent and placebo lotion was replaced monthly. The main outcome was rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-confirmed malaria measured by passive case detection (PCD). Incidence rate ratios were estimated from a Poisson model, with adjustment for potential confounders, determined a priori. According-to-protocol approach was used for all primary analyses. Results: The placebo group comprised 1972.3 person-years with 68.29 (95% C.I 37.05-99.53) malaria cases/1,000 person-years. The repellent group comprised 1,952.8 person-years with 60.45 (95% C.I 48.30-72.60) cases /1,000 person-years, demonstrating a non-significant 11.44% reduction in malaria incidence rate in this group, (Wilcoxon rank sum z = 0.529, p = 0.596). Principal components analysis (PCA) of the socio-economic status (SES) of the two groups demonstrated that the control group had a higher SES (Pearson's chi square = 13.38, p = 0.004). Conclusions: Lack of an intervention effect was likely a result of lack of statistical power, poor capture of malaria events or bias caused by imbalance in the SES of the two groups. Low malaria transmission during the study period could have masked the intervention effect and a larger study size was needed to increase discriminatory power. Alternatively, topical repellents may have no impact on malaria transmission in this scenario. Design and implementation of repellent intervention studies is discussed.Trial registration: The trial was registered ISRCTN92202008 - http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN92202008
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Tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 are possibly involved in Plasmodium vivax-associated thrombocytopaenia in southern Pakistani population

Malaria Journal - 16 August 2014 - 12:00am
Background: In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax is endemic causing approximately 70% of the malaria cases. A number of haematological changes, especially thrombocytopaenia have been reported for P. vivax. Several host factors including cell-mediated immune cells, such as IL-1, IL-6 and IL-10 have been documented for P. vivax-induced thrombocytopaenia. However, study on correlation of cytokines and thrombocytopaenia in P. vivax, particularly in patients with severe signs and symptoms has not been reported from Pakistan. Methods: A case control study to correlate TNF, IL-6 and IL-10 in healthy controls and thrombocytopaenic P. vivax-infected patients (both uncomplicated and complicated cases) from southern Pakistan was carried out during January 2009 to December 2011. One Hundred and eighty two patients presenting with microscopy-confirmed asexual P. vivax mono-infection and 100 healthy controls were enrolled in the study at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed for determination of TNF, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Results: Out of 182 cases, mild thrombocytopaenia (platelet count 100,000-150,000 mm3) was observed in ten (5.5%), moderate (50,000-100,000 mm3) in 93 (51.1%), and profound thrombocytopaenia (<50,000 mm3) was detected in 79 (43.4%) patients. IL-6 and IL-10 levels were found approximately three-fold higher in the mild cases compared to healthy controls. Two-fold increase in TNF and IL-10 (p < 0.0001) was observed in profound thrombocytopaenic when compared with moderate cases, while IL-6 was not found to be significantly elevated. Conclusion: Cytokines may have a possible role in P. vivax-induced thrombocytopaenia in Pakistani population. Findings from this study give first insight from Pakistan on the role of cytokines in P.vivax-associated thrombocytopaenia. However, further studies are required to understand the relevance of cytokines in manifestations of thrombocytopaenia in P. vivax malaria.
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L Cevenini et al. Multicolor Bioluminescence Boosts Malaria Research: Quantitative Dual-Color Assay and Single-Cell Imaging in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites. Anal Chem

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 15 August 2014 - 12:00am
New reliable and cost-effective antimalarial drug screening assays are urgently needed to identify drugs acting on different stages of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and particularly those responsible for human-to-mosquito transmission, that is, the P. . . .
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AK Lyseen et al. A Review and Framework for Categorizing Current Research and Development in Health Related Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Studies. Yearb Med Inform

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 15 August 2014 - 12:00am
The application of GIS in health science has increased over the last decade and new innovative application areas have emerged. . . .
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