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B Zelman et al. Costs of Eliminating Malaria and the Impact of the Global Fund in 34 Countries. PLoS One

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 31 December 2015 - 12:00am
International financing for malaria increased more than 18-fold between 2000 and 2011; the largest source came from The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). . . .
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AJ Arik et al. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. FASEB J

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 31 December 2015 - 12:00am
Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. . . .
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JJ Campo et al. RTS,S vaccination is associated with serologic evidence of decreased exposure to Plasmodium falciparum liver and blood stage parasites. Mol Cell Proteomics

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 30 December 2015 - 12:00am
The leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, targets the sporozoite and liver stages of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle, yet it provides partial protection against disease associated with subsequent blood-stage of infection. . . .
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C Waterman et al. Miniaturized Cultivation of Microbiota for Antimalarial Drug Discovery. Med Res Rev

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 29 December 2015 - 12:00am
The ongoing search for effective antiplasmodial agents remains essential in the fight against malaria worldwide. . . .
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CV Hobbs et al. Neither the HIV Protease Inhibitor Lopinavir-Ritonavir nor the Antimicrobial Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prevent Malaria Relapse in Plasmodium cynomolgi-Infected Non-Human Primates. PLoS One

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 27 December 2015 - 12:00am
Plasmodium vivax malaria causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and only one drug is in clinical use that can kill the hypnozoites that cause P. . . .
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K Schuldt et al. Endothelial protein C receptor gene variants not associated with severe malaria in ghanaian children. PLoS One

High Impact Journal from Malaria Portal - 27 December 2015 - 12:00am
Two recent reports have identified the Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR) as a key molecule implicated in severe malaria pathology. . . .
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A novel multiple-stage antimalarial agent that inhibits protein synthesis

CiteULike malaria tags - 25 June 2015 - 10:19am
Nature, Vol. 522, No. 7556. (18 June 2015), pp. 315-320, doi:10.1038/nature14451
Beatriz Baragana, Irene Hallyburton, Marcus Lee, Neil Norcross, Raffaella Grimaldi, Thomas Otto, William Proto, Andrew Blagborough, Stephan Meister, Grennady Wirjanata, Andrea Ruecker, Leanna Upton, Tara Abraham, Mariana Almeida, Anupam Pradhan, Achim Porzelle, Maria Martinez, Judith Bolscher, Andrew Woodland, Suzanne Norval, Fabio Zuccotto, John Thomas, Frederick Simeons, Laste Stojanovski, Maria Osuna-Cabello, Paddy Brock, Tom Churcher, Katarzyna Sala, Sara Zakutansky, Maria Jimenez-Diaz, Laura Sanz, Jennifer Riley, Rajshekhar Basak, Michael Campbell, Vicky Avery, Robert Sauerwein, Koen Dechering, Rintis Noviyanti, Brice Campo, Julie Frearson, Inigo Angulo-Barturen, Santiago Ferrer-Bazaga, Francisco Gamo, Paul Wyatt, Didier Leroy, Peter Siegl, Michael Delves, Dennis Kyle, Sergio Wittlin, Jutta Marfurt, Ric Price, Robert Sinden, Elizabeth Winzeler, Susan Charman, Lidiya Bebrevska, David Gray, Simon Campbell, Alan Fairlamb, Paul Willis, Julian Rayner, David Fidock, Kevin Read, Ian Gilbert
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Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in school children from two districts of Ghana earmarked for indoor residual spraying: a cross-sectional study

Malaria Journal - 25 June 2015 - 12:00am
Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is considered a valuable transmission control measure against malaria but exact efficacy data are not available for many epidemiological settings. This study was conducted to determine indicators for malaria epidemiology and transmission among school children as baseline assessment before IRS implementation in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Adansi South District of the Ashanti Region and Wa West District of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Malarial parasitaemia and anaemia were determined in pupils between the ages of 2 and 14 years from Early Childhood Development Centres and primary schools. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia was detected by light microscopy. Results: Out of 1,649 pupils who were enrolled at participating schools, 684 were positive for plasmodia resulting in a baseline parasitaemia prevalence of 41.5%. Parasite rate was similar in the two districts (42.0% in Adansi South and 40.7% in Wa West), but differed across the nine sentinel schools ranging from 21 to 63% (p < 0.001). The mean haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dl [standard deviation (SD) ±2.1]. Pupils who had moderate to mild anaemia (7.0–10.9 g/dl) constituted 41.7% of the study sample. Conclusion: The burden of parasitaemia, malaria and anaemia is a major public health problem among school children in rural Ghana with extensive heterogeneity between schools and warrants further investment in intervention measures.
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&#8216;A bite before bed&#8217;: exposure to malaria vectors outside the times of net use in the highlands of western Kenya

Malaria Journal - 25 June 2015 - 12:00am
Background: The human population in the highlands of Nyanza Province, western Kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are used widely in this area. These interventions are most effective when Anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when individuals use LLINs. It is therefore important to test the current assumption of vector feeding preferences, and late night feeding times, in order to estimate the extent to which LLINs protect the inhabitants from vector bites. Methods: Mosquito collections were made for six consecutive nights each month between June 2011 and May 2012. CDC light-traps were set next to occupied LLINs inside and outside randomly selected houses and emptied hourly. The net usage of residents, their hours of house entry and exit and times of sleeping were recorded and the individual hourly exposure to vectors indoors and outdoors was calculated. Using these data, the true protective efficacy of nets (P*), for this population was estimated, and compared between genders, age groups and from month to month. Results: Primary vector species (Anopheles funestus s.l. and Anopheles arabiensis) were more likely to feed indoors but the secondary vector Anopheles coustani demonstrated exophagic behaviour (p < 0.05). A rise in vector biting activity was recorded at 19:30 outdoors and 18:30 indoors. Individuals using LLINs experienced a moderate reduction in their overall exposure to malaria vectors from 1.3 to 0.47 bites per night. The P* for the population over the study period was calculated as 51% and varied significantly with age and season (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In the present study, LLINs offered the local population partial protection against malaria vector bites. It is likely that P* would be estimated to be greater if the overall suppression of the local vector population due to widespread community net use could be taken into account. However, the overlap of early biting habit of vectors and human activity in this region indicates that additional methods of vector control are required to limit transmission. Regular surveillance of both vector behaviour and domestic human-behaviour patterns would assist the planning of future control interventions in this region.
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Therapeutic efficacy of artemether&#8211;lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated <it>Plasmodium falciparum</it> malaria in Enfranze, north-west Ethiopia

Malaria Journal - 24 June 2015 - 12:00am
Background: Plasmodium falciparum accounts for approximately 60% of malaria cases in Ethiopia and artemether–lumefantrine has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria since 2004. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in north-western Ethiopia. Methods: A 28-day one-arm, prospective evaluation of the clinical and parasitological response to the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was conducted in Enfranze Health Centre in accordance with the 2009 WHO efficacy study guidelines. Patients were treated with a 3-day course of AL and clinical and parasitological parameters were monitored over a 28-day follow-up. All data from recruited patients were imported into an electronic data base and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used for analysing primary [early treatment failures (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF), late parasitological failures (LPF), and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR)] and secondary (PCT, GCT and FCT) outcomes. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled and all of them completed the 28-day follow-up period. The PCR-corrected cure rate was 95.0% (95% CI 87.0–98.4%) and there were two ETF, one LCF and three LPF. Two of the LPF were classified as re infections by PCR. Seventy three point seven five percent, 91.25 and 95% of patients had cleared their parasitaemia by days 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 75, 91.25 and 96.25% of patients had cleared their fever by days 1, 2, and 3. All patients completely cleared their gametocytes by day 7. Conclusion: The relatively high cure rate, low proportion of patients still positive on day 3 as well as parasite clearance times in this study would indicate no imminent threat of artemisinin resistance development in the region. However, the threat of spreading or de novo development of artemisinin resistance warrants regular monitoring of drug efficacy throughout the region.
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Re-imaging malaria in the Philippines: how photovoice can help to re-imagine malaria

Malaria Journal - 24 June 2015 - 12:00am
Background: This paper responds to a recent call for malaria to be re-imagined by: explaining why it needs to be re-imagined; offering one possible way in which this can be done; and describing some of benefits for malaria control when it is. Methods: This study involved conducting a 15-week photovoice project with 44 predominantly ethnically Palawan school-going children in the municipality of Bataraza in the Philippines. The primary aim was to critically examine how facilitating children to take their own pictures of malaria could alter their understanding of it as well as the practices that they then engaged into prevent and treat it.Results and discussionDuring the photovoice process, participants responded to the question, ‘what does malaria mean to you?’ by photographing multiple versions of malaria. Some of these versions align with biomedical conceptions and mirror common images of: its sources (e.g. mosquitoes); symptoms (e.g. fever); prevention practices (e.g. use of mosquito nets); diagnostic practices (e.g. use Rapid Diagnostic Tests) and treatment practices (e.g. use of anti-malarial drugs). However, in addition to these depictions, participants also took images of malaria that aligned with more local understanding of the body, health and well-being, which are often neglected by health practitioners. In the case of the Palawan, these versions of malaria are structured around the central tenet of balance. Participants therefore photographed themselves and members of their family and community engaging in a number of practices, which are orientated towards restoring and maintaining balance. As well being an effective means to illuminate multiple malarias and the practices that surround them, photovoice also enabled participants to learn new things and significantly, teach these things to others using their images. Conclusion: Photovoice is an effective method for re-imaging malaria. It allowed participants to depict and describe multiple versions of malaria and the practices that they engage in in context. Photovoice also had a potentially transformative effect. It acted as a means for participants and researchers to: visually depict everyday practices; collectively gain a deeper understanding of this doing; and then seek ways in which to make changes in line with this joint understanding.
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Human biting activity, spatial&#8211;temporal distribution and malaria vector role of <it>Anopheles calderoni</it> in the southwest of Colombia

Malaria Journal - 24 June 2015 - 12:00am
Background: Anopheles calderoni was first recognized in Colombia in 2010 as this species had been misidentified as Anopheles punctimacula due to morphological similarities. An. calderoni is considered a malaria vector in Peru and has been found naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum in Colombia. However, its biting behaviour, population dynamics and epidemiological importance have not been well described for Colombia. Methods: To assess the contribution of An. calderoni to malaria transmission and its human biting behaviour and spatial/temporal distribution in the southwest of Colombia, human landing catches (HLC) and larval collections were carried out in a cross-sectional, entomological study in 22 localities between 2011 and 2012, and a longitudinal study was performed in the Boca de Prieta locality in Olaya Herrera municipality between July 2012 and June 2013. All mosquitoes determined as An. calderoni were tested by ELISA to establish infection with Plasmodium spp. Results: Larvae of An. calderoni were found in four localities in 12 out of 244 breeding sites inspected. An. calderoni adults were collected in 14 out of 22 localities during the cross-sectional study and represented 41.3% (459 of 1,111) of the collected adult specimens. Other species found were Anopheles albimanus (54.7%), Anopheles apicimacula (2.1%), Anopheles neivai (1.7%), and Anopheles argyritarsis (0.2%). In the localities that reported the highest malaria Annual Parasite Index (>10/1,000 inhabitants) during the year of sampling, An. calderoni was the predominant species (>90% of the specimens collected). In the longitudinal study, 1,528 An. calderoni were collected by HLC with highest biting rates in February, May and June 2013, periods of high precipitation. In general, the species showed a preference to bite outdoors (p < 0.001). In Boca de Prieta, two specimens of An. calderoni were ELISA positive for Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein: one for P. falciparum and one for Plasmodium vivax VK-210. This represents an overall sporozoite rate of 0.1% and an annual entomological inoculation rate of 2.84 infective bites/human/year. Conclusions: This study shows that An. calderoni is a primary malaria vector in the southwest of Colombia. Its observed preference for outdoor biting is a major challenge for malaria control.
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