- Malaria Research
- Schisto Research
- Toxoplasma Research
- Tuberculosis Research
- General Open Research
- Getting Started
- Resources Needed
Resolution of rac-Praziquanamine with quinic acid
Communityschisto research community
Here is a procedure from a German Patent Application from 1975 which uses quinic acid for the racemic resolution of praziquanamine. The corresponding US patent (US 3,993,760, 1976) provides the translated procedure (page 5, column 7, "Example 1" lines 32-50) here. However, this procedure gives less information about the yield obtained.
The result of the first trial conducted under the conditions described in the patent procedure was disappointing (see Procedure 1 and Patent Procedure). Methanolic solutions of Praziquanamine (1 eq.) and quinic acid (1.3 eq.) were combined and heated at reflux for 15 min. Upon cooling to room temperature, the precipitate which formed was filtered off. The filtrate was concentrated to a fifth of the volume and a second precipitate was collected. The amorphous precipitates contained a different enantiomeric excess of each enantiomers:
Precipitate 1: yield 72% (ee 11% (+)-PZA)*
Precipitate 2: yield 13% (ee 45% (-)-PZA)*
*) ee determined by optical rotation of the liberated amine from the diastereomeric salt (so far, all attempts to determinate ee by HPLC have been unsuccessful)
With small variations in the conditions the ee and yield of the praziquanamine resolution were improved (see Procedure 2). The methanolic solutions of amine and acid were combined in a sealed tube, heated to reflux and cooled to room temperature. The first precipitate was filtered off, the liquor was concentrated untill a second solid started to precipitate and then the mixture was stored for 10 h in the fridge at 6°C.
Precipitate 1: yield 59% (ee 48% (+)-PZA)*
Precipitate 2: yield 23% (ee 85% (-)-PZA)*
The current issues I am working on are finding a suitable method to determine the ee by using chromatography (HPLC, GC) and optimizing the resolution conditions.
Syncom BV found a resolution method for PZQamine by screening of a number of chiral acids and identified (-)-dianisoyl-L-tartaric as an excellent resolving agent for the (+)-enantiomere.
Praziquanamine (202 mg, 1.00 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (0.8 mL) and added to a warm solution of quinic acid (1.30 mmol, 250 mg) in methanol (4.2 mL). After a few seconds an amorphous precipitate formed. The stirred mixture was heated at reflux for 15 min and allowed to cool to room temperature. The amorphous precipitate was filtered off, the remaining solution was concentrated to about 0.8 mL and the resulting second amorphous precipitate was also filtered off. Both precipitates and the remaining filtrate were adjusted to pH 12 by adding a 2 N NaOH solution, extracted with DCM and dried over sodium sulfate. The concentrated residues were analyzed by optical rotation (and chiral HPLC).
*Calculation of the enantiomeric excess by optical rotation:
ee = ([α]obs/[α]max) x 100
[α]D20 (-)-praziquanamine = -306° 
Praziquanamine (202 mg, 1.00 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (0.8 mL) and added to a warm solution of quinic acid (1.30 mmol, 250 mg) in methanol (4.2 mL) in a sealed tube. The stirred mixture was heated to reflux and cooled to room temperature. The amorphous precipitate was filtered off, the remaining solution was concentrated to about 1.5 mL when a solid started to precipitate. The mixture was stored in the fridge at 6°C for 10 h and then the second amorphous precipitate was filtered off. Both precipitates and the filtrate were adjusted to pH 12 by adding a 2 N NaOH solution, extracted with DCM and dried over sodium sulfate. The concentrated residues were analyzed by optical rotation (and chiral HPLC).
Patent Procedure (Translated from the original patent application, language: German, page 11-12): 
24.3 g (+/-)-4-oxo-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isochinoline (m.p. 118-119°C […]) is dissolved in 100 mL methanol and added to a warm solution of 30 g quinic acid in 500 mL methanol. It is heated to reflux for 15 min and then cooled to 20°C. The obtained crystals are filtered off, the mother liquor is reduced to 100 mL and the precipitated crystals are separated. The quinic acidic salt of (-)-4-oxo-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isochinoline is obtained, m.p 196°C. The salt is dissolved in water, the solution is made basic and extracted with chloroform. After drying and evaporation the left rotating free base is obtained, m.p. 120°C, [α]D20 = -306°.