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Comparison of praziquantel pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in fresh and brackish water cultured grass carp (<it>ctenopharyngodon idellus</it>) after oral administration of single bolus

Citulike PZQ - 2 April 2015 - 4:14am
BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. $item.volume (01 April 2015), 84, doi:10.1186/s12917-015-0400-2

Background: Praziquantel (PZQ) is an effective pesticide against monogeneans. Its pharmacokinetics in fish may be affected by water environment and temperature. The present study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and elimination of PZQ in freshwater-acclimated grass carp and brackish water cultured grass carp. Plasma and tissue PZQ concentrations were determined after a single 10 mg/kg oral PZQ dose. Results: The datas of plasma and tissues drug concentration was calculated by the software SPSS 13.0. According to the One-Way ANOVA, the results showed that the salinity had a significant effect on the drug concentration of plasma (p < 0.01), muscle (p < 0.01), liver (p < 0.01) and kidney (p < 0.01) in the all sampling time points between the brackish water grass carps and the freshwater grass carps, wherein, PZQ plasma and tissue concentrations in the brackish water group were constantly lower than that in the freshwater group. The peak PZQ levels of plasma, muscle, liver, and kidneys in the brackish water group were 0.76 ¼g/ml, 0.51 ¼g/g, 2.7 ¼g/g, and 2.99 ¼g/g, respectively; and that in the freshwater group were 0.91 ¼g/ml, 0.62 ¼g/g, 3.87 ¼g/g, and 3.39 ¼g/g, respectively. The elimination half-lives (t1/2²) in plasma and all tissues of the freshwater group were significantly longer than that in the brackish water group. The elimination half-lives (t1/2²) of plasma, muscle, liver and kidneys in brackish water grass carps were 56.46, 36.17, 15.31, and 132.64 h, respectively; and that in the freshwater grass carps were 71.15, 44.88, 23.86, and 150.23 h, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that water environment affects the tissue distribution and elimination of PZQ in grass carps, the elimination in brackish water grass carps is more rapid than that in fresh water grass carps and tissue concentrations of brackish water grass carps are lower than that in freshwater grass carps after orally administrating the same dosage at the same water temperature. We speculate that the main excretion pathway of the drug is through renal elimination, and the decreased kidney function in brackish water grass carps is likely responsible for the considerable difference in pharmacokinetics between the two groups of grass carps.
Xinyan Xie, Yini Zhao, Xianle Yang, Kun Hu
Categories: schisto news feeds

Schistosomiasis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C co-infection

Citulike schistosomiasis - 11 February 2015 - 12:29pm
Virology Journal, Vol. $item.volume (08 February 2015), 19, doi:10.1186/s12985-015-0251-2

Background: Schistosomiasis is a significant health problem in more than 70 countries distributed between Africa, Asia and South America, with an infection rate of one in 30 individuals. Data on Schistosomiasis, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection are scarce; however, there is a high prevalence in countries where schistosomiasis is endemic. Methods: A systematic search was performed on published data from 1980?2014. Published papers in the databases Google, Medline, PubMed, and MiPc library were searched using the keywords epidemiology, pathogenesis and outcomes of HBV, HCV and schistosomiasis and data were extracted from the relevant studies. Results: The prevalence of HBV/schistosomiasis co-infection in countries where schistosomiasis is endemic was high, ranging between 9.6 to approximately 64% in Egypt, and a maximum of 15.8% among hospitalized patients in Brazil. Concurrent infection between HBV and schistosomiasis is often associated with countries where schistosomiasis is endemic and may lead to chronic liver inflammation. Similarly, HCV infection rates in schistosomiasis populations range from 1% in Ethiopia reaching up to 50% in Egypt. Conclusion: There is controversy regarding the effects of HBV and HCV on schistosomiasis and vice versa. Vaccination might be a solution to the era of schistosomiasis and co-infection with HBV and HCV.
Gasim Gasim, Abdelhaleem Bella, Ishag Adam
Categories: schisto news feeds

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